Research and Insights

CJC at the 2018 American Academy of Advertising Conference

March 28-31, 2019
Dallas, Texas

Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Telecommunication Professor

Ad Avoidance Predictors: An Ad Blocker User Perspective

Authors: Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Yoo Jin Chung and Xiaomeng “Maggie” Lan UFCJC doctoral students, Lisa-Charlotte Wolter, Hamburg Media School

Abstract: This study explores how ad blocker users are different from non-users in terms of their cognitive, affective, and behavioral ad avoidance in an online environment. Integrating the previous ad avoidance literature, this study also explored the factors¾perceived negativity of ad, perceived value of ad, media usage, and demographics that are associated with three dimensions of ad avoidance and the differences for both user groups. Using a survey method recruited from the actual ad blocker users and non-users (N= 582), this study reveals that two groups are not significantly different in terms of their nature of online ad avoidance. However, the results reveal that there are different predictors that are associated with ad avoidance depending on the use of ad blocker.  The results suggest that media consumption patterns might play a different role in cognitive ad avoidance. Perceived goal impediment was important for both user groups in terms of affective ad avoidance, but users were more influenced by perceived lack of utility while non-users were more influenced by perceived sacrifice. For behavioral ad avoidance, both user groups are positively associated with perceived negativity of goal impediment and sacrifice.

Functionality and Adoption of Branded Radio Apps: The Millennial Perspective

Authors: Sylvia Chan-Olmsted, Rang Wang, UFCJC doctoral student, Kyung-Ho Hwang, Kyungnam University

Abstract: The Millennial is gradually leaving broadcast radio. To retain Millennial consumers, radio broadcasters integrated mobile apps into their branded services to adapt to the generation’s mobile-centric lifestyle. Branded radio apps, which possess technology, brand, and media properties simultaneously and act as a marketing tool as well as a means of content delivery, are the focal point of this study. Through a national survey of Millennial radio consumers, this study explores their functionality preferences regarding branded radio apps and factors affecting their adoption of such apps. The potential contribution of these apps to loyalty is also studied. To be specific, three types of factors are investigated, namely technology, brand, and media factors. Adoption is explored from two perspectives, including adoption intention among non-adopters and actual adoption behaviors that distinguish adopters from non-adopters. The results suggest that Millennial consumers desire engagement, control of radio experience, integration of social media, and enhancement of music listening. In addition to functionality factors, technology acceptance factors, media usage factors, and brand relationship factors also play a role in affecting adoption. As such, this study contributes to the literature of technology acceptance, branded apps marketing, and media management. Practical implications are discussed as well.

Huan Chen, Advertising Assistant Professor

Self-presentation and Interactivity: How Message Features Influence Consumers’ Perception of Luxury Brands’ Social Media Advertising and Perception of Brand

Authors: Huan Chen, Ye Wang, UFCJC doctoral student

Abstract: As social media allow users to engage with various branded contents, companies and brands have taken advantage of different social media platforms to connect with consumers and build brand equity. Meaning is at the center of brand equity. Luxury brands in particular have in possession rich social, cultural and symbolic meanings. Therefore, luxury brands must understand how to interact with customers and promote branded content via social media in order to build strong brand equity. However, little research has been conducted to examine how consumers perceive social media advertising and brands in the context of luxury products. In order to fill the research gap, an online experiment was conducted to investigate different advertising message features that influence consumers’ perception of a luxury brand social media advertising and subsequently, their perception of the brand. Findings showed that both content and interactive features are significant strategic considerations to enhance perceptions of luxury brands and its branded social media sites.

Vertical Individualism as a Motivating Factor in Perceiving CSR advertising for East Asian Market

Authors: Yoon Joo Lee, Washington State University, Huan Chen,  Ruowen Wang, UFCJC doctoral student

Abstract: This study examines if vertical individualism can function as a motivating factor among Chinese and Korean consumers in supporting CSR initiatives. The finding suggests that CSR initiatives can be utilized as a tool appealing to vertical individualism.  However, VI was an important motivator only among males and older age group in attitude toward CSR ads and purchase intention in Korea. In China, IV is a crucial factor to trigger a positive attitude and strong purchase intention toward CSR ads among young females. In general, the finding implies that among Chinese and Korean consumers, status seeking motives relevant to VI are particularly perceived to be achieved toward CSR initiatives among older age group of males. Theoretical and managerial implications are further discussed.

Balancing Impressiveness and Favorability: A Qualitative Study on an Emerging Type of Advertising in China

Authors: Liu Liu, Huan Chen

Abstract: This study examined a new emerging advertising format (Creative Mid-Roll Advertising, CMA) in Chinese online video platforms through the eyes of consumers in order to give advertising scholars and practitioners a better understanding on how consumers perceive creative contents and formats of advertising in the era of new media. CMA is a short video advertising embedded in the online TV series, and it is created in a way that makes it appear very similar to the drama in terms of the content and setting. 20 in-depth interviews were conducted to collect data. Findings revealed that CMA is characterized by mid-roll, native, explicit, and dramatic.

Does Femvertising Sell? A Data Mining Investigation of Consumer Conversations around Dove’s Campaign for Real Beauty on YouTube

Authors: Yang Feng, San Diego State University, Huan Chen, Li He

Abstract: As a growing marketing trend that appropriates feminist values and female empowerment, femvertising has the potential to encourage brand consumption and to reduce the occurrence of advertising reactance. Dove’s Campaign for Real Beauty is a pioneer of femvertising that focuses on redefining beauty standards and enhancing women’s self-esteem. This research presents a framework that identifies five topics (i.e., ad skepticism, definition of beauty, praise of ad, critical thinking, and other) of YouTube comments around Dove’s Campaign for Real Beauty. The framework, applied to 20,419 unique comments, was developed from a combined use of qualitative textual analysis, human-based content analysis, and machine-learning-based data mining. Results indicated that definition of beauty and praise of advertising were the two most frequent topics among both top comments and overall comments; in addition, comments around these two topics received the largest number of likes. In contrast, comments around advertising skepticism received the least number of likes. Generally, it is shown that public favors femvertising.

Summer Shelton, University of Florida

Improving Representations of Disabilities in Advertising: Recommendations for Change

Award: $2,000 Dissertation Award

Abstract: The dissertation focuses on how people with disabilities are represented in advertising and the issue of “inspiration porn.” This concept is used in ads to show people with disabilities as inspirational stimuli for the benefit of non-disabled audiences. Research found that this representation has been deemed problematic and the paper offers recommendation to improve this perception and to develop effective ads featuring people with disabilities.

Does ‘Inspiration Porn’ Inspire? How Model Disability and Level of Challenge Impact Affective Responses and Attitudinal Evaluations of Advertising

Authors: Summer Shelton, Frank Waddell, Journalism Assistant Professor

Abstract: Members of the disabilities community have voiced concerns about stigmatizing representations of persons with disabilities (PWDs) in advertising. “Inspiration porn” in advertising often takes the form of showing a PWD completing highly physical and challenging tasks (i.e. climbing a mountain, running a long race with prosthetic legs, snowboarding, etc.). Such portrayals of PWDs have the potential to elicit elevation but could also lead to ego-threatening self-comparisons. The question thus arises: does the use of PWDs in advertising affect advertisement effectiveness? Utilizing a 2 (disability status of the model: non-disabled vs. disability) by 2 (challenge level of the activity: no challenge vs. high challenge) between subjects design, an online experiment (N = 472) asked, does a model with a disability (compared with a non-disabled model) completing a high challenge task (compared with a low challenge task), increase an advertisement’s effectiveness? Furthermore, it explored whether indicators of inspiration mediated the relationship. Results revealed that advertisements featuring models with disabilities (relative to advertising with an able-bodied model) increased advertisement effectiveness. Mediation analyses revealed that the effect of model disability on advertisement effectiveness was mediated by meaningful affect and physical indicators of elevation. Implications for practitioners and scholars are provided.

Rang Wang, Doctoral Student

Understanding YouTube Personality Communities: Conceptualization and Typologies

Abstract: YouTube personality channels have attracted great attention in the recent years given their values in marketing and advertising. However, what a YouTube personality channel is and how it operates have not been clearly demonstrated in a conceptual way. Adopting a community approach, this study addresses this issue by conceptually defining YouTube personality channels as participatory content communities and developing typologies of two major types of members of these communities – personalities and followers – respectively. As such, a conceptual framework is provided to advance our understanding of YouTube personality channels and to guide future empirical research in areas such as online communities and influencer marketing.

Kasey Windels, Advertising Assistant Professor

Post-Femvertising: How Award-Winning Femvertising Messages Draw upon Elements of Post-Feminist Discourse

Authors: Kasey Windels, Sara Champlin, University of Texas, Summer Shelton, UFCJC doctoral student, Yvette Sterbenk, Ithaca College

Abstract: Femvertising messages are advertisements that aim to empower women through pro-female messages, and the category has grown tremendously since the success of the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty. The industry has celebrated the new category with several new awards, and consumers share the messages of empowerment through social media. However, some research has shown that these messages use post-feminist discourses, which draw on feminist signifiers, strip them of their political meaning, and use those messages in the service of selling. Using a feminist critical standpoint and textual analysis, this study analyzes the 26 campaigns that have won #Femvertising Awards since 2015, seeking to determine whether and which elements of post-feminist discourse were used in these award-winning femvertising campaigns. A deep understanding of the potential flaws in these otherwise powerful emotional messages is necessary if advertising wishes truly to empower women with femvertising messages.

All Brands Welcome? An Exploration of How Brand-Cause Fit Shapes Messages in Femvertisements

Authors: Sara Champlin, University of Texas, Yvette Sterbenk, Ithaca College, Kasey Windels, Madison Poteet

Abstract: A growing trend in advertising is “brand responsibility,” wherein a brand aligns itself with a social issue. A prominent focus of these messages is gender equality, namely, female empowerment. Advertisers utilize “femvertisements” to emphasize their support of women. However, the motive behind this work is often called into question, given brands’ inherent desire to sell products. Advertisers should consider how brands “fit” with specific social issues. In this study, brand-cause fit is explored through a qualitative analysis of advertisements that received an award for femvertising. Previous research conveys that the effect of brand-cause fit on consumer evaluations is inconsistent. This study sheds light on the relevant differences in message themes between brands with high versus low brand-cause fit, in an effort to further this literature. Four key themes are elucidated: What it Means to be a Woman, The Current State of Women, Hesitation to Alienate your Current Target Audience, and Product Purpose. Brand-cause fit is also assessed from an “image” perspective. A brand’s corporate image is conveyed through their leadership and social initiatives. Among brands with award-winning femvertisements, however, few had female-focused corporate leadership, yet several had existing initiatives devoted to women. Implications for advertising practitioners and researchers are discussed.